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On the application of "major hazard sources" control method in construction

the production safety law of the people's Republic of China passed by the Standing Committee of the Ninth National People's Congress stipulates that "production and business units should register and file major hazard sources, conduct regular detection, evaluation and monitoring, and formulate emergency plans to inform employees and relevant personnel of the emergency measures that should be taken in case of emergency"; "Production and business operation entities shall, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the state, report their major hazard installations and relevant safety measures and emergency measures to the safety supervision and Administration Department of the relevant local people's government and other relevant departments for the record."

the so-called "major hazard sources" refer to units (including places or facilities) that produce, handle, use or store dangerous goods for a long time or temporarily, and the quantity of dangerous goods is equal to or exceeds the critical quantity. The above provisions of the work safety law are mainly due to the fact that major hazard sources are places where dangerous goods gather in large quantities, There are significant [the possibility of safety accidents, and once a safety accident occurs, it will cause serious damage to the personal safety of employees and collective property. At the same time, work safety supervision and management departments and professionals timely identify and control major hazard sources, comprehensively grasp the distribution of major hazard sources and specific hazards of the unit, and can take targeted preventive measures to prevent and reduce the occurrence of safety accidents.

1、 The promotion and use of major hazard source control method is the need to ensure construction production

major hazard sources of construction enterprises in short, all kinds of unsafe factors and hidden dangers that are easy to constitute accidents in the process of construction and production. The control of major hazard installations is mainly based on the analysis and prediction of various factors such as the data of all aspects of the project, the current state, the external environment, the management system and the process level before the start of construction and production, so as to focus on the control of key parts and links in the process of construction and production, so as to lay a solid foundation for long-term development. The promotion and use of major hazard source control method at the construction site can eliminate potential accidents to the greatest extent, ensure construction safety, and provide favorable conditions for enterprises to complete the construction output value and create the best economic and social benefits

as a railway construction enterprise, it has its own inherent characteristics. First of all, with a wide range of construction fields, many opportunities for high-altitude operation and a high probability of using explosives, it is one of the industries with the largest number of major hazard sources. The control index of 1000 work-related deaths and 1000 serious injuries of enterprise employees is also much higher than that of general industries. Secondly, the work task is complex and different structural forms have different operating procedures. Roads, railways, ports and buildings have their own architectural characteristics and construction methods. Each process and stage of them has great operational differences, and the unsafe factors involved are also various, and they are changing all the time. At the same time, these changes also have the characteristics of irregularity. Thirdly, the overall quality of the units participating in the construction is different. Once the units cannot effectively coordinate and cooperate, it may cause major hazards

with the progress of science and technology and the continuous updating of safety management mode, some old stereotypes have long been unsuitable for the needs of modern management. Only by complying with the law of construction and production and correctly using the control method of "major hazard sources", can major safety accidents be eliminated in the bud and construction safety be ensured

second, major hazard sources out of control is the root cause of major safety accidents

in construction and production activities, the vast majority of units that have major safety accidents are caused by major hazard sources out of control. On August 10, 2001, the personnel of the liquefied gas station of yangmahe bridge plant of the head office system emptied the residual liquid from five gas storage tanks. When it was discharged to the last one, an explosion suddenly occurred, resulting in the injury of eight employees working on the site. Three of them died because of the severe injury, and the burn area of five others reached 90%, with a direct economic loss of nearly 3million yuan. After the accident, it caused a strong shock in the local and head office systems and even the whole country. The CPC Central Committee and the State Council also paid great attention to this matter. Through investigation and analysis, it is determined that the main reasons for this accident are: 1. Violating the operation regulations of special equipment, and carrying out replacement and exhaust without authorization, there is neither strict organization nor necessary safety precautions; 2. The operation method is wrong. Continuous and large-scale discharge of inflammables is not allowed by the safety operation regulations, because this will cause excessive concentration of inflammable gas in the air in a short time, so that it will exceed the safety limit and explode; 3. The fire department found cigarette butts and lighters through on-site investigation, and determined that smoking may be the direct cause of the accident

if the unit has high safety awareness, fully recognizes the importance of liquefied gas tank as a major hazard source to safety production, takes preventive measures as soon as possible, strengthens on-site safety management, formulates practical operating procedures, and operators operate according to regulations, this major casualty accident can be completely avoided. Facts have proved that the loss of control of major hazard sources on the construction site is the root cause of safety accidents

III. use the major hazard control method to identify and analyze major hazard sources, find out the key points of accident prevention in construction and production, master the accident prevention law

learn to use the major hazard control method to identify and analyze major hazard sources, and then you can grasp the initiative to control accidents in the construction process, so it plays a very important role in the production process. Due to the characteristics of the enterprise itself, all kinds of major hazard sources exist objectively, which requires that all safety management departments and safety managers have solid business knowledge and high ability to deal with emergencies. In the process of safety supervision and inspection, they should effectively use the major hazard source control method, be good at observing and discovering the signs of accidents, and be able to formulate appropriate measures to deal with them thoroughly in time. At the same time, we should classify all kinds of major hazard sources and formulate targeted measures to strictly prevent them. During the construction process, the common major hazard sources mainly include the following aspects:

1. Object strike. Including falling objects during high-altitude operation; Rolling stones and objects on the working surface of subgrade slope; Possible injuries such as smashing and bumping caused by flying stones, collapsing blocks and hammering during blasting operation

2. Falling from height. In the construction of high-rise buildings and bridges, due to the mistakes of operators and inadequate protective measures, operators are prone to fall accidents

3. Collapse accident. Landslides caused by inadequate foundation excavation support, improper spoil location or slope instability, incorrect tunneling methods, or sudden changes in surrounding rock without corresponding changes in construction methods

4. mechanical injury. During the operation of mechanical equipment, accidents such as stranding, grinding, bumping, rolling and squeezing are easy to occur because the operators drive against rules or the mechanical faults are not eliminated in time

5. Lifting injury. In the lifting operation, personal injury is likely to be caused due to improper use of lifting equipment, unstable support, insufficient strength of connections, or due to human error in operation, improper command, loose binding or operator's inattention

6. Electric shock injury. The power consumption on the construction site is not standardized, such as disorderly pulling and connecting; There is no reliable protection for the electric knife, junction box, motor and its transmission system; It is very easy for non professional personnel to cause safety accidents when using electricity

7. The operators' failure to correctly use safety protection appliances and supplies at the construction site is also the cause of personal injury accidents

8. Special operation personnel are not trained and work without certificates. They are specious about the operating procedures they are engaged in, and they are easy to take things for granted and cause safety accidents

9. Inflammable, explosive and dangerous goods are easy to cause safety accidents when they are not handled, used and kept according to strict rules and regulations

the major hazard sources in the above nine aspects are the most common and the most prominent links of major accident hidden dangers in construction enterprises. If they are not carefully identified and effective preventive measures are taken in the construction and production process, major safety accidents may occur

IV. the key to the promotion and use of major hazard source control method is to implement

in the construction process, the correct use of major hazard source control method is a necessary condition to effectively curb all kinds of accidents and create a good safety environment for enterprise construction and production

1. Truly implement the post system of safety production at all levels. For a construction project, the project manager is the first person to apply the major hazard source control method. It is necessary to clearly list the major hazard sources according to the characteristics of the purpose that the item may cause equipment damage, and make a thorough investigation one by one, allocate sufficient safety management personnel, and formulate positive and effective preventive measures. During the operation, follow-up and monitoring shall be carried out to find and correct violations in time. At the same time, organize to formulate and realize the control objectives of major hazard sources, implement the safety post system, sign the safety guarantee level by level, decompose layer by layer, and assign people

2. Professionals engaged in safety management should strictly perform their duties, correctly master and apply the major hazard source control method, guide and help the construction unit and operators how to effectively identify the major hazard sources in the commissioning and use of the door and window corner strength testing machine, and how to take corresponding countermeasures against different major hazard sources to avoid major safety accidents as far as possible

3. All start and everyone participate. Strengthen the publicity, education and training of safety production for all cadres and workers, especially the safety education of major hazard source control focusing on accident prevention, so as to truly "carry the heavy burden of safety, and everyone has indicators on his shoulders", so that all employees can consciously use the major hazard source control method to avoid accidents and ensure the safety of construction production and themselves. Only by forming a situation that everyone stresses safety, everyone understands safety and everyone wants safety, can we achieve a double harvest of construction and safety, and the safety management of the enterprise can really reach a new level

work safety is not only a matter for administrative personnel, but also a matter for safety managers. It is related to the career and health of every cadre and employee, and to the peace and happiness of thousands of families. At present, the work safety law of the people's Republic of China has been promulgated and implemented, and leaders at all levels should not only take the lead in learning, Be familiar with and master the basic legal principles and main contents of the production safety law of the people's Republic of China on the prevention of water, acid and other mixtures in oil, and organize employees to learn from them, item by item and sentence by sentence, so as to improve the safety awareness and safety quality of the majority of employees, constantly strengthen their self-defense ability, and keep major hazard sources under control. (Yao Jianhua, Feng Guangwei)

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